Entangled

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The world around us was changing. New technology was being discovered, new fads were emerging, everything was evolving; especially science. The theory of entanglement had just been introduced in a paper by Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen. It was known that two atoms could be directly correlated to one another. But the theory had never been seen in the real world, especially not in humans. That is until the AbbA sisters were born. These twins, EvE and ItI seemed like normal children until strange things started happening. Growing up, whenever one of the sisters would get sick or injured, the other one would feel the opposite automatically. Their parents never thought anything of it, until they began to notice strange patterns of behavior as the girls got older. When they brought them to a team of doctors, they discovered the unimaginable. The two sisters were directly correlated to one another, just like two atoms.  Entangled and interdependent.
 
Some neighbours claimed that the sisters were witches. This theory arose from their ability to read minds. Fear from others about their powers was not overwhelming, largely due to the fact that their telepathic abilities related directly to each other but not to others. This unique power enabled them to respond to one another without words. It was first noticed by their parents. As the girls grew older, their parents would often feel that they had missed a conversation. One girl would make a decision or give a response to the others thoughts without any verbal discourse. This sometimes gave their parents a sense of uncertainty. It was more than just a twin bond. As the body of science grew, theorists began to claim that supernatural abilities such as these could be explained. Entanglement theory was the answer. These twins, once entangled could communicate instantly with each other, thus matching their states and keeping the equilibrium. 
 
The interdependence of the girls would continue, even if they were on opposite sides of the world. In their twenties, they spent a considerable amount of time traveling. Once when one sister was studying in Singapore, the other was working in the hotel industry in Finland. ItI in Singapore was in the best shape of her life, loving the hardworking lifestyle and she had lost 12 pounds. Similarly EvE was struggling with her weight and had gained the same amount. When Itl would move quickly to catch a bus, EvE would saunter through the streets. Who would know of these strange states? Even the girls themselves would not be able to be witness to these great forces.
 
The sisters were paradoxical. One day EvE would feel that she was on top of the world. That same day, ItI would not be able to get out of bed. ItI would be soaring in her work place, while EvE would struggle to make ends meet.  EvE was shortsighted and ItI was farsighted. When EvE would have a dream filled with joy and happiness, Itl would have a nightmare that would leave her soaked with sweat. 
 
Theorists studying the pair began to see that the girls could become very dangerous. Through their entanglement, could they begin to manipulate the world around them? The girls had not yet made the connection themselves, perhaps because this was “normal” to them. What would happen if they decided to use their powers to get exactly what they wanted or needed? Whether this be a relationship, or a worldly good such as money or gold, if they recognized their unique powers, they could be capable of unthinkable deeds. Even more unimaginable, what if others who understood their potential were able to manipulate them to get what they wanted?
 
As the girls grew older, they settled back in the region where they had been raised. Still single, they decided to buy a house together. It was only then that EvE and ItI AbbA discovered what their parents, doctors and theorists already knew but had kept from them. Without speaking a word to one another, the intelligent twins knew what the other was thinking. The opportunities were endless. While sipping on a glass of merlot, ItI and EvE thought of an interesting plan. EvE and ItI put this plan to the test.  ItI flew to Las Vegas while EvE caught a flight to Chicago. Upon arriving in Sin City, EvE headed to the Bellagio. Placing a bet at the Craps table EvE prayed for the best. She hoped for a seven. At the same time, in the Windy City,  ItI prepared to place her bet. EvE knew that the millisecond she saw her result, ItI would know. EvE rolled...a five..and a...one. ItI immediately knew that EvE had lost her bet. She took all the money she had and placed it on the table. ItI did not even need to look at the dice. She rolled a six and a one. There was a gasp around the table. The winnings were enormous! The girls had done it and without saying a word to one another , they knew that they possibilities were endless this was only the beginning. Maybe the neighbours were right.

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Quantum Theories

Z is for ... Zero-point energy

Even at absolute zero, the lowest temperature possible, nothing has zero energy. In these conditions, particles and fields are in their lowest energy state, with an energy proportional to Planck’s constant.

P is for ... Planck's Constant

This is one of the universal constants of nature, and relates the energy of a single quantum of radiation to its frequency. It is central to quantum theory and appears in many important formulae, including the Schrödinger Equation.

S is for ... Superposition

Quantum objects can exist in two or more states at once: an electron in superposition, for example, can simultaneously move clockwise and anticlockwise around a ring-shaped conductor.

L is for ... Light

We used to believe light was a wave, then we discovered it had the properties of a particle that we call a photon. Now we know it, like all elementary quantum objects, is both a wave and a particle!

S is for ... Schrödinger’s Cat

A hypothetical experiment in which a cat kept in a closed box can be alive and dead at the same time – as long as nobody lifts the lid to take a look.

Q is for ... Quantum biology

A new and growing field that explores whether many biological processes depend on uniquely quantum processes to work. Under particular scrutiny at the moment are photosynthesis, smell and the navigation of migratory birds.

G is for ... Gluon

These elementary particles hold together the quarks that lie at the heart of matter.

W is for ... Wave-particle duality

It is possible to describe an atom, an electron, or a photon as either a wave or a particle. In reality, they are both: a wave and a particle.

O is for ... Objective reality

Niels Bohr, one of the founding fathers of quantum physics, said there is no such thing as objective reality. All we can talk about, he said, is the results of measurements we make.

A is for ... Act of observation

Some people believe this changes everything in the quantum world, even bringing things into existence.

X is for ... X-ray

In 1923 Arthur Compton shone X-rays onto a block of graphite and found that they bounced off with their energy reduced exactly as would be expected if they were composed of particles colliding with electrons in the graphite. This was the first indication of radiation’s particle-like nature.

Q is for ... Qubit

One quantum bit of information is known as a qubit (pronounced Q-bit). The ability of quantum particles to exist in many different states at once means a single quantum object can represent multiple qubits at once, opening up the possibility of extremely fast information processing.

I is for ... Interferometer

Some of the strangest characteristics of quantum theory can be demonstrated by firing a photon into an interferometer: the device’s output is a pattern that can only be explained by the photon passing simultaneously through two widely-separated slits.

H is for ... Hawking Radiation

In 1975, Stephen Hawking showed that the principles of quantum mechanics would mean that a black hole emits a slow stream of particles and would eventually evaporate.

F is for ... Free Will

Ideas at the heart of quantum theory, to do with randomness and the character of the molecules that make up the physical matter of our brains, lead some researchers to suggest humans can’t have free will.

C is for ... Computing

The rules of the quantum world mean that we can process information much faster than is possible using the computers we use now.

N is for ... Nonlocality

When two quantum particles are entangled, it can also be said they are “nonlocal”: their physical proximity does not affect the way their quantum states are linked.

B is for ... Bell's Theorem

In 1964, John Bell came up with a way of testing whether quantum theory was a true reflection of reality. In 1982, the results came in – and the world has never been the same since!

U is for ... Uncertainty Principle

One of the most famous ideas in science, this declares that it is impossible to know all the physical attributes of a quantum particle or system simultaneously.

E is for ... Entanglement

When two quantum objects interact, the information they contain becomes shared. This can result in a kind of link between them, where an action performed on one will affect the outcome of an action performed on the other. This “entanglement” applies even if the two particles are half a universe apart.

G is for ... Gravity

Our best theory of gravity no longer belongs to Isaac Newton. It’s Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity. There’s just one problem: it is incompatible with quantum theory. The effort to tie the two together provides the greatest challenge to physics in the 21st century.

T is for ... Tunnelling

This happens when quantum objects “borrow” energy in order to bypass an obstacle such as a gap in an electrical circuit. It is possible thanks to the uncertainty principle, and enables quantum particles to do things other particles can’t.

M is for ... Many Worlds Theory

Some researchers think the best way to explain the strange characteristics of the quantum world is to allow that each quantum event creates a new universe.

L is for ... Large Hadron Collider (LHC)

At CERN in Geneva, Switzerland, this machine is smashing apart particles in order to discover their constituent parts and the quantum laws that govern their behaviour.

M is for ... Multiverse

Our most successful theories of cosmology suggest that our universe is one of many universes that bubble off from one another. It’s not clear whether it will ever be possible to detect these other universes.

R is for ... Randomness

Unpredictability lies at the heart of quantum mechanics. It bothered Einstein, but it also bothers the Dalai Lama.

W is for ... Wavefunction

The mathematics of quantum theory associates each quantum object with a wavefunction that appears in the Schrödinger equation and gives the probability of finding it in any given state.

P is for ... Probability

Quantum mechanics is a probabilistic theory: it does not give definite answers, but only the probability that an experiment will come up with a particular answer. This was the source of Einstein’s objection that God “does not play dice” with the universe.

J is for ... Josephson Junction

This is a narrow constriction in a ring of superconductor. Current can only move around the ring because of quantum laws; the apparatus provides a neat way to investigate the properties of quantum mechanics.

D is for ... Decoherence

Unless it is carefully isolated, a quantum system will “leak” information into its surroundings. This can destroy delicate states such as superposition and entanglement.

D is for ... Dice

Albert Einstein decided quantum theory couldn’t be right because its reliance on probability means everything is a result of chance. “God doesn’t play dice with the world,” he said.

T is for ... Teleportation

Quantum tricks allow a particle to be transported from one location to another without passing through the intervening space – or that’s how it appears. The reality is that the process is more like faxing, where the information held by one particle is written onto a distant particle.

I is for ... Information

Many researchers working in quantum theory believe that information is the most fundamental building block of reality.

R is for ... Reality

Since the predictions of quantum theory have been right in every experiment ever done, many researchers think it is the best guide we have to the nature of reality. Unfortunately, that still leaves room for plenty of ideas about what reality really is!

A is for ... Atom

This is the basic building block of matter that creates the world of chemical elements – although it is made up of more fundamental particles.

S is for ... Schrödinger Equation

This is the central equation of quantum theory, and describes how any quantum system will behave, and how its observable qualities are likely to manifest in an experiment.

R is for ... Radioactivity

The atoms of a radioactive substance break apart, emitting particles. It is impossible to predict when the next particle will be emitted as it happens at random. All we can do is give the probability that any particular atom will have decayed by a given time.

A is for ... Alice and Bob

In quantum experiments, these are the names traditionally given to the people transmitting and receiving information. In quantum cryptography, an eavesdropper called Eve tries to intercept the information.

U is for ... Universe

To many researchers, the universe behaves like a gigantic quantum computer that is busy processing all the information it contains.

Y is for ... Young's Double Slit Experiment

In 1801, Thomas Young proved light was a wave, and overthrew Newton’s idea that light was a “corpuscle”.

H is for ... Hidden Variables

One school of thought says that the strangeness of quantum theory can be put down to a lack of information; if we could find the “hidden variables” the mysteries would all go away.

K is for ... Kaon

These are particles that carry a quantum property called strangeness. Some fundamental particles have the property known as charm!

V is for ... Virtual particles

Quantum theory’s uncertainty principle says that since not even empty space can have zero energy, the universe is fizzing with particle-antiparticle pairs that pop in and out of existence. These “virtual” particles are the source of Hawking radiation.

B is for ... Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC)

At extremely low temperatures, quantum rules mean that atoms can come together and behave as if they are one giant super-atom.

C is for ... Cryptography

People have been hiding information in messages for millennia, but the quantum world provides a whole new way to do it.