Large scale entanglement tonight

3.88889
Average: 3.9 (9 votes)
Your rating: None

 Manhattan 40°42′17″N 74°00′09″W; 9 p.m. A beautiful girl is sitting vis-a-vis a handsome young man in a charming little restaurant, both wrapping fettuccini over their forks. They did not see each other for more than a year since she moved away from New York where they were both studying physics and philosophy at NYU - and were eager to find about „what is connecting the world in the innermost“ as they were referring in the same spirit to the german poet Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. Suddenly she started to quote Maxwell‘s poem, in a simplified version:
"My soul is an entangled knot,
Upon a liquid vortex wrought
The secret of its untying
In four dimensional space is lying"
B: You are still the romantic girl I knew, Alice?
A: No Bob, I am talking about an ontological problem: sometimes I like to experience myself like in Maxwells poem and  consider myself merely as the center of force“
B: Do mean the fundamental experience of being the center of attraction, my dear?
A: No, - more in the sense Michael Faraday considered the atom as a center of force, the electro magnetic lines of forces,- to which knot theorists are still referring. Maybe we have  to blame Nikola Tesla for his letter with the most serious consequences, - the one he wrote to J.J. Thomson in 1891 saying his experiments prove the existence of  "small charged balls".  After that the theory of electrons overcame the idea of electromagnetic vortices.
 I think this assumption made everything more complicated and - separate.
B: So you are in the tradition of Boskovic since there has been no matter any longer except as popular relief. He thought through atomic theory to the end. Gravity is certainly not a ‘feature of matter’ simply because there is no matter. Nietzsche, Boskovic‘s greatest fan in the 19th century, takes gravity, just like vis inertiae, and says, it is certainly a form of the manifestation of force ,- simply because there is nothing other than force!
A: Exactly,- only  forces, dynamics, attraction and repulsion,- gravity between two bodies. 
B:  Usually gravitational force is inversely proportional to the square of the separation distance between the two interacting objects. More separation distance will result in weaker gravitational forces. In love Newton‘s law is reverse; it increases with the distance, the Marquise du Châtelet asserted.
A: Some people say, love is connecting the two halves.
B That‘s entanglement. It is the quantum mechanical version of belonging to the same-system. Two things are the same-system or entangled if they have collided or are from the same-source. In experiments they just bring two particles close enough together and put them into an entangled state.
A: Oh yes, and Schrödinger was a very attractive men and he  knew what he was "inventing". But since then I don‘t understand that usually physicists like to mystify this "spooky action at a distance“. Pure thought in the intension of desire is connecting the two halves who may exchange e-motions  in the speed of thought and create a presence in the absence. -You  know what I mean, Bob?
B:   August Strindberg tells a story about  a noble couple which was so fine that he was sensing her pain in the moment when she peeked her finger with  a needle sitting in her room while he was riding a horse a mile away from her house.
A: I remember, it is a beautiful story in his blue book. How is this possible?  Does it not explain the need for a higher dimensionality of space ?
B: Well, there is the German philosopher Peter Sloterdijk  who states that people in love are able to perceive the higher dimensionality of reality.  
A:  Somewhere Strindberg gives even  a more physical explanation of Plato‘s idea that love is the medium: two lovers are producing a current of high frequency for which there is no distance;-.
B:  You mean this human experiences are naturally occurring phenomena which indicate the spooking action at the distance?
A: It even becomes less spooky if you‘r living in Faraday‘s and Maxwell‘s ether.
B: I know what you mean, especially if you bring a second soul into play vortices and they are interfering with each other ? 
A:  Sure, otherwise we would be nothing like a piece of wood or rather plastic;  if we consider ourselves as merely 3-dimensional objects/ subjects without being particles AND waves, say „body“ and „soul“.
Alice observes Bob looking at his iPad and was quite sure she went too far with her conversation,- so she added quickly: „ Doesn't this mean, that the determination of the concept of space dimensions is a philosophical problem that  has to be logically and  geometrically defined, rather than concerning an experimentally provable physical phenomenon?“ 
He nodded and said still looking at the small screen placed next to his plate:
„ Now I found the quote of Rauscher  and Amoroso: “Events that appear remote in four space... are contiguous in the complex eight space in which causality conditions are preserved and the acquisition of apparent remote information is allowed.”
A: You mean WE need 8-dimensional Minkowski space to live a normal life - as romantic beings?
B: Yes I believe we should claim it as a vibrant cosy minimum mental cage to live in. In fact  everything can be more easily understood from a higher dimensional view-point.
B: I guess we are both victims of the laws of nature enjoying quantum coherence of large scale entanglement. 
A: So then WE are proving the   higher dimensionality of space which would „trigger a revolution in physics comparable to the Copernican”, as the theoretical physicist Lisa Randall puts it ?
B:  Maybe, - alas, there is no device that will display the result to serve as a reference   ... shall we go ?

About the Author: 
Renate Quehenberger, living in Vienna; studied philosophy, art history and mathematics and geometry. I developed a digital 3D animated geometry in order to depict higher dimensional space concepts and discovered the 3D representation of the Penrose Kites and Darts tiling (epitahedron) which serves for research on quantum mechanically possible structures.

Newsletter Signup

Submit your email address so we can send you occasional competition updates and tell you who wins!

Quantum Theories

G is for ... Gravity

Our best theory of gravity no longer belongs to Isaac Newton. It’s Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity. There’s just one problem: it is incompatible with quantum theory. The effort to tie the two together provides the greatest challenge to physics in the 21st century.

M is for ... Multiverse

Our most successful theories of cosmology suggest that our universe is one of many universes that bubble off from one another. It’s not clear whether it will ever be possible to detect these other universes.

R is for ... Reality

Since the predictions of quantum theory have been right in every experiment ever done, many researchers think it is the best guide we have to the nature of reality. Unfortunately, that still leaves room for plenty of ideas about what reality really is!

S is for ... Schrödinger’s Cat

A hypothetical experiment in which a cat kept in a closed box can be alive and dead at the same time – as long as nobody lifts the lid to take a look.

V is for ... Virtual particles

Quantum theory’s uncertainty principle says that since not even empty space can have zero energy, the universe is fizzing with particle-antiparticle pairs that pop in and out of existence. These “virtual” particles are the source of Hawking radiation.

B is for ... Bell's Theorem

In 1964, John Bell came up with a way of testing whether quantum theory was a true reflection of reality. In 1982, the results came in – and the world has never been the same since!

P is for ... Probability

Quantum mechanics is a probabilistic theory: it does not give definite answers, but only the probability that an experiment will come up with a particular answer. This was the source of Einstein’s objection that God “does not play dice” with the universe.

Y is for ... Young's Double Slit Experiment

In 1801, Thomas Young proved light was a wave, and overthrew Newton’s idea that light was a “corpuscle”.

L is for ... Large Hadron Collider (LHC)

At CERN in Geneva, Switzerland, this machine is smashing apart particles in order to discover their constituent parts and the quantum laws that govern their behaviour.

A is for ... Act of observation

Some people believe this changes everything in the quantum world, even bringing things into existence.

U is for ... Universe

To many researchers, the universe behaves like a gigantic quantum computer that is busy processing all the information it contains.

Z is for ... Zero-point energy

Even at absolute zero, the lowest temperature possible, nothing has zero energy. In these conditions, particles and fields are in their lowest energy state, with an energy proportional to Planck’s constant.

M is for ... Many Worlds Theory

Some researchers think the best way to explain the strange characteristics of the quantum world is to allow that each quantum event creates a new universe.

D is for ... Decoherence

Unless it is carefully isolated, a quantum system will “leak” information into its surroundings. This can destroy delicate states such as superposition and entanglement.

H is for ... Hidden Variables

One school of thought says that the strangeness of quantum theory can be put down to a lack of information; if we could find the “hidden variables” the mysteries would all go away.

O is for ... Objective reality

Niels Bohr, one of the founding fathers of quantum physics, said there is no such thing as objective reality. All we can talk about, he said, is the results of measurements we make.

S is for ... Schrödinger Equation

This is the central equation of quantum theory, and describes how any quantum system will behave, and how its observable qualities are likely to manifest in an experiment.

L is for ... Light

We used to believe light was a wave, then we discovered it had the properties of a particle that we call a photon. Now we know it, like all elementary quantum objects, is both a wave and a particle!

S is for ... Superposition

Quantum objects can exist in two or more states at once: an electron in superposition, for example, can simultaneously move clockwise and anticlockwise around a ring-shaped conductor.

R is for ... Randomness

Unpredictability lies at the heart of quantum mechanics. It bothered Einstein, but it also bothers the Dalai Lama.

I is for ... Interferometer

Some of the strangest characteristics of quantum theory can be demonstrated by firing a photon into an interferometer: the device’s output is a pattern that can only be explained by the photon passing simultaneously through two widely-separated slits.

G is for ... Gluon

These elementary particles hold together the quarks that lie at the heart of matter.

I is for ... Information

Many researchers working in quantum theory believe that information is the most fundamental building block of reality.

N is for ... Nonlocality

When two quantum particles are entangled, it can also be said they are “nonlocal”: their physical proximity does not affect the way their quantum states are linked.

W is for ... Wavefunction

The mathematics of quantum theory associates each quantum object with a wavefunction that appears in the Schrödinger equation and gives the probability of finding it in any given state.

K is for ... Kaon

These are particles that carry a quantum property called strangeness. Some fundamental particles have the property known as charm!

A is for ... Alice and Bob

In quantum experiments, these are the names traditionally given to the people transmitting and receiving information. In quantum cryptography, an eavesdropper called Eve tries to intercept the information.

X is for ... X-ray

In 1923 Arthur Compton shone X-rays onto a block of graphite and found that they bounced off with their energy reduced exactly as would be expected if they were composed of particles colliding with electrons in the graphite. This was the first indication of radiation’s particle-like nature.

R is for ... Radioactivity

The atoms of a radioactive substance break apart, emitting particles. It is impossible to predict when the next particle will be emitted as it happens at random. All we can do is give the probability that any particular atom will have decayed by a given time.

C is for ... Computing

The rules of the quantum world mean that we can process information much faster than is possible using the computers we use now.

H is for ... Hawking Radiation

In 1975, Stephen Hawking showed that the principles of quantum mechanics would mean that a black hole emits a slow stream of particles and would eventually evaporate.

P is for ... Planck's Constant

This is one of the universal constants of nature, and relates the energy of a single quantum of radiation to its frequency. It is central to quantum theory and appears in many important formulae, including the Schrödinger Equation.

D is for ... Dice

Albert Einstein decided quantum theory couldn’t be right because its reliance on probability means everything is a result of chance. “God doesn’t play dice with the world,” he said.

J is for ... Josephson Junction

This is a narrow constriction in a ring of superconductor. Current can only move around the ring because of quantum laws; the apparatus provides a neat way to investigate the properties of quantum mechanics.

F is for ... Free Will

Ideas at the heart of quantum theory, to do with randomness and the character of the molecules that make up the physical matter of our brains, lead some researchers to suggest humans can’t have free will.

E is for ... Entanglement

When two quantum objects interact, the information they contain becomes shared. This can result in a kind of link between them, where an action performed on one will affect the outcome of an action performed on the other. This “entanglement” applies even if the two particles are half a universe apart.

T is for ... Teleportation

Quantum tricks allow a particle to be transported from one location to another without passing through the intervening space – or that’s how it appears. The reality is that the process is more like faxing, where the information held by one particle is written onto a distant particle.

B is for ... Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC)

At extremely low temperatures, quantum rules mean that atoms can come together and behave as if they are one giant super-atom.

C is for ... Cryptography

People have been hiding information in messages for millennia, but the quantum world provides a whole new way to do it.

T is for ... Tunnelling

This happens when quantum objects “borrow” energy in order to bypass an obstacle such as a gap in an electrical circuit. It is possible thanks to the uncertainty principle, and enables quantum particles to do things other particles can’t.

Q is for ... Qubit

One quantum bit of information is known as a qubit (pronounced Q-bit). The ability of quantum particles to exist in many different states at once means a single quantum object can represent multiple qubits at once, opening up the possibility of extremely fast information processing.

A is for ... Atom

This is the basic building block of matter that creates the world of chemical elements – although it is made up of more fundamental particles.

U is for ... Uncertainty Principle

One of the most famous ideas in science, this declares that it is impossible to know all the physical attributes of a quantum particle or system simultaneously.

W is for ... Wave-particle duality

It is possible to describe an atom, an electron, or a photon as either a wave or a particle. In reality, they are both: a wave and a particle.

Q is for ... Quantum biology

A new and growing field that explores whether many biological processes depend on uniquely quantum processes to work. Under particular scrutiny at the moment are photosynthesis, smell and the navigation of migratory birds.