Omnia mea mecum tele-porto

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- Hey big guy. Thanks for calling me, I haven't heard from you in a while. How's Palo Alto?
- Sorry I got your message a bit late. We are processing the data from the accelerator. Are you home already? I hope I'm not interrupting your dinner.
- Not yet. I'm leaving the lab at t the moment and I need to get into the elevator. Let me give you a call when I get downstairs.
- I'm back big guy. You are never going to guess who did I meet in the elevator. Remember that Chinese post doc from Harvard Medical School that came to do some electroporation work with Jim Weaver few weeks ago?
- Yes, you told me how the all male physics department had hard time to do any work while she would visit. Shamelessly carrying  her fancy Ipad, like she is going to use it for some serious work. At least she didn't  wear her white lab coat. All this in probably the last chalk and blackboard refuge. Demonstrating the shifting baseline syndrome, it is ironic how each generation readily accepts the current state of affairs as a norm.
- Yes it was her and me alone in the elevator. Funny thing, she asked me, why do I carry a backpack all the time. I said "Omnia mea mecum porto!" alluding to the fact that as an recent emigrant from a poor country I don't own that much.  "What was that?" she replied. When I said Latin, she said "Oh, so you are from Latin America?". " No..., far from it", I replied. "I'm a proud citizen of republic of Miranda... you know, the eastern Mediterranean", as she politely stayed even more confused.
 - You should have asked her out. What are the odds of the largest nation on Earth meeting one of the last of the Mirandians?
- Oh no, Michaela would not like that.
- Are you back with your girlfriend?
- Yes, Mathematicians have peculiar personalities but we smoothed things out. Which reminds me. I need to get her the Mexican Coca-Cola for the dinner tonight. She really likes it. It is made with real sugar, not a corn syrup as the ones in US. Anyway I called you  to hear your sharp thoughts regarding the quantum entanglement. I recently had a nice conversation about it with Abner Shimony.
- Remind me who was that.
- You met him once after a talk at MIT. We had a nice conversation in the bar at the Buckminster hotel on Kenmore Square. Talking about shifting baselines and my ignorant perception of the Buckminster. Abner told me how as a student in the late 1950's he attended there Dave Brubeck's "Take Five" concert that elevated him to a celebrity status in the Jazz world. Abner himself in the late 1960's worked out the Bell's inequalities into an experimental possibility to finally check what is correct. The classical local realism requiring that, if physical quantities (charge or so) jump from one place to the other something needs to travel through the space in between. Or the opposing quantum mechanical view that indeed a physical state can change instantaneously jumping from here to there without a mediator.
- It is all about principles. Relativity or the uncertainty. They seem to contradict each other at some level. As Feynman nicely put it, locality and conservation are consonant to relativity, based on the fact that two observers by any experiment cannot resolve who is moving and who is standing still. The fact that you cannot say how fast you're moving, implies that if something is conserved, it must be done not by jumping from one place to another. And then you have the uncertainty principle that contradicts locality and the basis of the entire physics, namely the conservation laws.
- Yes in did, it seems the extreme consequence is the quantum teleportation. I just got home. Give me a second to put the Coke in the fridge..., Abner was explaining to me the actual teleportation protocol requirements between the two locations of Joe and Moe.
- Wait a second. Not Alice and Bob?
- I'm guessing Joe and Moe were the old baseline.
- I wander what will be the next baseline? Anyway all that teleportation business refers to particles that are indistinguishable. You cannot tell apart the electron in my phone from the one in yours. If this was true with the objects around us, then you could teleport your Mexican Coke to me. Of cause the protocol would be that first I put one in my fridge and then as you just put yours in your fridge you call me and say I'm teleporting the Mexican Coke to you.
- Funny exaggeration, but  't Hooft recently made a very valid point based on “free will” if you will, that a local, deterministic theory may resolve the concerns about causality and locality in quantum mechanics.
- It is a live subject. Recently Maldacena and Susskind proposed that entanglement is associated with Einstein-Rosen bridges, also called `non-traversable wormholes'. Just few days ago I saw a talk by A. Adamov on the Schwinger effect at large 't Hooft coupling in supersymmetric Yang Mills theory and the geometry of a pair of entangled quarks. The fellow tries to establish a connection between entanglement and space-time geometry at least when the pair of quarks are causally disconnected.
- Please send me the e-archive link. I have to go. Michaela just arrived.
- Hi honey. What is for dinner?
- Your favorite, and don't forget to check the surprise in the fridge.
- I'm looking at it. Don't tell me that you forgot to get me a Mexican Coke.  That was the only thing I asked for...
While somewhere in Palo Alto a bottle of Mexican Coke is opened, a guy satisfactory burps after taking a sip, and says to himself, "Wow..., it does taste better!". 

About the Author: 
The author enjoys inspired science conversations as much as the science itself.

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Quantum Theories

Y is for ... Young's Double Slit Experiment

In 1801, Thomas Young proved light was a wave, and overthrew Newton’s idea that light was a “corpuscle”.

X is for ... X-ray

In 1923 Arthur Compton shone X-rays onto a block of graphite and found that they bounced off with their energy reduced exactly as would be expected if they were composed of particles colliding with electrons in the graphite. This was the first indication of radiation’s particle-like nature.

V is for ... Virtual particles

Quantum theory’s uncertainty principle says that since not even empty space can have zero energy, the universe is fizzing with particle-antiparticle pairs that pop in and out of existence. These “virtual” particles are the source of Hawking radiation.

W is for ... Wavefunction

The mathematics of quantum theory associates each quantum object with a wavefunction that appears in the Schrödinger equation and gives the probability of finding it in any given state.

R is for ... Radioactivity

The atoms of a radioactive substance break apart, emitting particles. It is impossible to predict when the next particle will be emitted as it happens at random. All we can do is give the probability that any particular atom will have decayed by a given time.

O is for ... Objective reality

Niels Bohr, one of the founding fathers of quantum physics, said there is no such thing as objective reality. All we can talk about, he said, is the results of measurements we make.

Q is for ... Quantum biology

A new and growing field that explores whether many biological processes depend on uniquely quantum processes to work. Under particular scrutiny at the moment are photosynthesis, smell and the navigation of migratory birds.

B is for ... Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC)

At extremely low temperatures, quantum rules mean that atoms can come together and behave as if they are one giant super-atom.

P is for ... Planck's Constant

This is one of the universal constants of nature, and relates the energy of a single quantum of radiation to its frequency. It is central to quantum theory and appears in many important formulae, including the Schrödinger Equation.

I is for ... Information

Many researchers working in quantum theory believe that information is the most fundamental building block of reality.

G is for ... Gravity

Our best theory of gravity no longer belongs to Isaac Newton. It’s Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity. There’s just one problem: it is incompatible with quantum theory. The effort to tie the two together provides the greatest challenge to physics in the 21st century.

S is for ... Schrödinger’s Cat

A hypothetical experiment in which a cat kept in a closed box can be alive and dead at the same time – as long as nobody lifts the lid to take a look.

Q is for ... Qubit

One quantum bit of information is known as a qubit (pronounced Q-bit). The ability of quantum particles to exist in many different states at once means a single quantum object can represent multiple qubits at once, opening up the possibility of extremely fast information processing.

J is for ... Josephson Junction

This is a narrow constriction in a ring of superconductor. Current can only move around the ring because of quantum laws; the apparatus provides a neat way to investigate the properties of quantum mechanics.

I is for ... Interferometer

Some of the strangest characteristics of quantum theory can be demonstrated by firing a photon into an interferometer: the device’s output is a pattern that can only be explained by the photon passing simultaneously through two widely-separated slits.

B is for ... Bell's Theorem

In 1964, John Bell came up with a way of testing whether quantum theory was a true reflection of reality. In 1982, the results came in – and the world has never been the same since!

D is for ... Decoherence

Unless it is carefully isolated, a quantum system will “leak” information into its surroundings. This can destroy delicate states such as superposition and entanglement.

D is for ... Dice

Albert Einstein decided quantum theory couldn’t be right because its reliance on probability means everything is a result of chance. “God doesn’t play dice with the world,” he said.

W is for ... Wave-particle duality

It is possible to describe an atom, an electron, or a photon as either a wave or a particle. In reality, they are both: a wave and a particle.

A is for ... Alice and Bob

In quantum experiments, these are the names traditionally given to the people transmitting and receiving information. In quantum cryptography, an eavesdropper called Eve tries to intercept the information.

S is for ... Schrödinger Equation

This is the central equation of quantum theory, and describes how any quantum system will behave, and how its observable qualities are likely to manifest in an experiment.

M is for ... Multiverse

Our most successful theories of cosmology suggest that our universe is one of many universes that bubble off from one another. It’s not clear whether it will ever be possible to detect these other universes.

F is for ... Free Will

Ideas at the heart of quantum theory, to do with randomness and the character of the molecules that make up the physical matter of our brains, lead some researchers to suggest humans can’t have free will.

H is for ... Hidden Variables

One school of thought says that the strangeness of quantum theory can be put down to a lack of information; if we could find the “hidden variables” the mysteries would all go away.

R is for ... Randomness

Unpredictability lies at the heart of quantum mechanics. It bothered Einstein, but it also bothers the Dalai Lama.

R is for ... Reality

Since the predictions of quantum theory have been right in every experiment ever done, many researchers think it is the best guide we have to the nature of reality. Unfortunately, that still leaves room for plenty of ideas about what reality really is!

U is for ... Uncertainty Principle

One of the most famous ideas in science, this declares that it is impossible to know all the physical attributes of a quantum particle or system simultaneously.

T is for ... Teleportation

Quantum tricks allow a particle to be transported from one location to another without passing through the intervening space – or that’s how it appears. The reality is that the process is more like faxing, where the information held by one particle is written onto a distant particle.

L is for ... Light

We used to believe light was a wave, then we discovered it had the properties of a particle that we call a photon. Now we know it, like all elementary quantum objects, is both a wave and a particle!

C is for ... Computing

The rules of the quantum world mean that we can process information much faster than is possible using the computers we use now.

T is for ... Tunnelling

This happens when quantum objects “borrow” energy in order to bypass an obstacle such as a gap in an electrical circuit. It is possible thanks to the uncertainty principle, and enables quantum particles to do things other particles can’t.

G is for ... Gluon

These elementary particles hold together the quarks that lie at the heart of matter.

A is for ... Act of observation

Some people believe this changes everything in the quantum world, even bringing things into existence.

K is for ... Kaon

These are particles that carry a quantum property called strangeness. Some fundamental particles have the property known as charm!

L is for ... Large Hadron Collider (LHC)

At CERN in Geneva, Switzerland, this machine is smashing apart particles in order to discover their constituent parts and the quantum laws that govern their behaviour.

Z is for ... Zero-point energy

Even at absolute zero, the lowest temperature possible, nothing has zero energy. In these conditions, particles and fields are in their lowest energy state, with an energy proportional to Planck’s constant.

H is for ... Hawking Radiation

In 1975, Stephen Hawking showed that the principles of quantum mechanics would mean that a black hole emits a slow stream of particles and would eventually evaporate.

S is for ... Superposition

Quantum objects can exist in two or more states at once: an electron in superposition, for example, can simultaneously move clockwise and anticlockwise around a ring-shaped conductor.

C is for ... Cryptography

People have been hiding information in messages for millennia, but the quantum world provides a whole new way to do it.

M is for ... Many Worlds Theory

Some researchers think the best way to explain the strange characteristics of the quantum world is to allow that each quantum event creates a new universe.

P is for ... Probability

Quantum mechanics is a probabilistic theory: it does not give definite answers, but only the probability that an experiment will come up with a particular answer. This was the source of Einstein’s objection that God “does not play dice” with the universe.

N is for ... Nonlocality

When two quantum particles are entangled, it can also be said they are “nonlocal”: their physical proximity does not affect the way their quantum states are linked.

A is for ... Atom

This is the basic building block of matter that creates the world of chemical elements – although it is made up of more fundamental particles.

E is for ... Entanglement

When two quantum objects interact, the information they contain becomes shared. This can result in a kind of link between them, where an action performed on one will affect the outcome of an action performed on the other. This “entanglement” applies even if the two particles are half a universe apart.

U is for ... Universe

To many researchers, the universe behaves like a gigantic quantum computer that is busy processing all the information it contains.