"Y'er OUT!"

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The roar of 50,000 major league baseball fans could be heard a mile away.  This was the final game of the playoff.  The inning was the bottom of the ninth, two out, home team batting.  The score was 2 to 1 in favor of the visitors, but a sharp single straight up the center allowed the runner on second base to round third and race home with the tying run.     What happened next reduced the nose level to a mere mutter. The umpire behind the plate was bent over at the waist, standing behind the catcher who was prone with hs glove hand on the plate.  "You're out!"  The batter, who had raced from third was in a slide position at the plate, under the catcher.  He rose, arms spread out.  The manager raced from the dugout to object but the plate umpire quickly joined the other officials and left the field.       Most of the fans were still standing, open mouthed, in disbelief.  Two of them, inthe second row betweenthe plate and 3rd base, were reviewing the cellphone replay.     "The ump couldn't see the play . . .", one of them, first name Armand, said.  A fan in the next row above shouted  "That guy was safe.  We should be in extra innings,  and we had a chance to get a run.      "Not much we can do, and the game is getting loner," Armand's friend, Nick Almarico, said as he picked up his belongings.  Two earlier protests in the game, reviewed by the officials under the new experimental review system, too an additional 28 minutes.  Nick reviewed his cellphone record of the event as they headed out of the stadium.     "Not for this game.  Too many questionable calls this season...too many complaints.  Also, too much time.  What once took only 90 minutes now takes 4 hours or more.  Time for change.  With that they both left the stadium in their rental car and headed for the airport.     This was the sixth such game in a series of eight this season in which he and his friend and assistant, Nick, had attened incognito to observe officiating.  Each of the eight scheduled appearances were at diffrent parks in different cities.  Attendance at the last two scheduled games might not be necessary.       Without missing a beat, when Armande Cerveau settled into his first class airplane seat, heading home, he opened a thick file marked  "COLOR".         Armand Cerveau was the chief executive officer for the entire baseball league.  Moved by thge game, he was thinking out loude,  "I am going to introduce this concept, a type of light indicator showing a particular color for 'safe' and a different color for 'out', using a type of  quantum sensor attached to uniforms and the bases.  All the ump has to do is watch for the color."       The COLOR file included much correspondence from one of his best friends,  AlexAurora, an engineer, who has suggested the move and outlined the events and tests to achieve it.         So, how can this be done!  They were not going to reinvent the electric and magnetic fields.  Motion of electric charges within the atom was well established.  This plan did not use any wires, of course, but it did identify the outcome of player-ball-base encounters without play interference.        Of the quantum particles, Alex's interest initially involved the photon, nothing but an electromagnetic force itself, and the electron, proton and neutron, the makeup of the atom.  At times he called them quarks and leptons, Armand thought "what ever those were!"  According to Alex the negative electric force is always available, always alive, wavelike and without volume.         In his papers, he outlined a detector, or sensor, that created a visible signal which could be observed.  The signal received as microscopic.  This was molecular electronics working with material such as silicon, electrons jigglind and creating electromagnetic radio waves.              Electrons combine with holes with aq diode which release energy in the form of photons, a messenger type of the force field.  he described a method to create a  p - n  junction between the two types of described materials to allow prescribed electron flow in the form of a photon.  As well, his description included the energy gap range necessary for the semiconductor, where the electrons can jump from one band to another, as necessary, for energy transition, giving off the colors red or green depending on the wavelength range.       Batteries would provide continuous power to monitor, and resistors to limit current.  The LED will light with correct electrical polarity.  This setup would be miiuaturized and installed within all bases and imbedded in home plate, such that there would bve no haard to a person, or to the game itself, but color visible with the use of a detector.  Next, would be the creation of a similar device, miniaturized, to clip on each player's pants leg.           One of the final steps was to modify the current procedure of supplying new baseballs.  On the the last production steps would be a required liqui9d bath which would imbed particle sensing materials on all new baseballs.  Several essential  technical steps had to be worked out.  No opposition was expected from any of the involved unions.          The overall plan would create a system that displayed an outcome color, red or green, at any of the bases, reflecting initial contact, either that of the offensive runner or of the defensive position player.   Officials were not going to be replaced because there were many other permutations of the game which required human offricial decisions,  and ALL such decisions still would be final.   But not there would be additional data input . . . and a quicker game.           With a roar, the 787 jet took off, heading hom.     ###
 

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Quantum Theories

I is for ... Interferometer

Some of the strangest characteristics of quantum theory can be demonstrated by firing a photon into an interferometer: the device’s output is a pattern that can only be explained by the photon passing simultaneously through two widely-separated slits.

M is for ... Many Worlds Theory

Some researchers think the best way to explain the strange characteristics of the quantum world is to allow that each quantum event creates a new universe.

U is for ... Uncertainty Principle

One of the most famous ideas in science, this declares that it is impossible to know all the physical attributes of a quantum particle or system simultaneously.

E is for ... Entanglement

When two quantum objects interact, the information they contain becomes shared. This can result in a kind of link between them, where an action performed on one will affect the outcome of an action performed on the other. This “entanglement” applies even if the two particles are half a universe apart.

B is for ... Bell's Theorem

In 1964, John Bell came up with a way of testing whether quantum theory was a true reflection of reality. In 1982, the results came in – and the world has never been the same since!

R is for ... Radioactivity

The atoms of a radioactive substance break apart, emitting particles. It is impossible to predict when the next particle will be emitted as it happens at random. All we can do is give the probability that any particular atom will have decayed by a given time.

Z is for ... Zero-point energy

Even at absolute zero, the lowest temperature possible, nothing has zero energy. In these conditions, particles and fields are in their lowest energy state, with an energy proportional to Planck’s constant.

C is for ... Computing

The rules of the quantum world mean that we can process information much faster than is possible using the computers we use now.

D is for ... Dice

Albert Einstein decided quantum theory couldn’t be right because its reliance on probability means everything is a result of chance. “God doesn’t play dice with the world,” he said.

C is for ... Cryptography

People have been hiding information in messages for millennia, but the quantum world provides a whole new way to do it.

Q is for ... Quantum biology

A new and growing field that explores whether many biological processes depend on uniquely quantum processes to work. Under particular scrutiny at the moment are photosynthesis, smell and the navigation of migratory birds.

F is for ... Free Will

Ideas at the heart of quantum theory, to do with randomness and the character of the molecules that make up the physical matter of our brains, lead some researchers to suggest humans can’t have free will.

T is for ... Teleportation

Quantum tricks allow a particle to be transported from one location to another without passing through the intervening space – or that’s how it appears. The reality is that the process is more like faxing, where the information held by one particle is written onto a distant particle.

N is for ... Nonlocality

When two quantum particles are entangled, it can also be said they are “nonlocal”: their physical proximity does not affect the way their quantum states are linked.

S is for ... Schrödinger Equation

This is the central equation of quantum theory, and describes how any quantum system will behave, and how its observable qualities are likely to manifest in an experiment.

M is for ... Multiverse

Our most successful theories of cosmology suggest that our universe is one of many universes that bubble off from one another. It’s not clear whether it will ever be possible to detect these other universes.

J is for ... Josephson Junction

This is a narrow constriction in a ring of superconductor. Current can only move around the ring because of quantum laws; the apparatus provides a neat way to investigate the properties of quantum mechanics.

R is for ... Reality

Since the predictions of quantum theory have been right in every experiment ever done, many researchers think it is the best guide we have to the nature of reality. Unfortunately, that still leaves room for plenty of ideas about what reality really is!

L is for ... Light

We used to believe light was a wave, then we discovered it had the properties of a particle that we call a photon. Now we know it, like all elementary quantum objects, is both a wave and a particle!

O is for ... Objective reality

Niels Bohr, one of the founding fathers of quantum physics, said there is no such thing as objective reality. All we can talk about, he said, is the results of measurements we make.

H is for ... Hawking Radiation

In 1975, Stephen Hawking showed that the principles of quantum mechanics would mean that a black hole emits a slow stream of particles and would eventually evaporate.

V is for ... Virtual particles

Quantum theory’s uncertainty principle says that since not even empty space can have zero energy, the universe is fizzing with particle-antiparticle pairs that pop in and out of existence. These “virtual” particles are the source of Hawking radiation.

R is for ... Randomness

Unpredictability lies at the heart of quantum mechanics. It bothered Einstein, but it also bothers the Dalai Lama.

P is for ... Probability

Quantum mechanics is a probabilistic theory: it does not give definite answers, but only the probability that an experiment will come up with a particular answer. This was the source of Einstein’s objection that God “does not play dice” with the universe.

P is for ... Planck's Constant

This is one of the universal constants of nature, and relates the energy of a single quantum of radiation to its frequency. It is central to quantum theory and appears in many important formulae, including the Schrödinger Equation.

W is for ... Wavefunction

The mathematics of quantum theory associates each quantum object with a wavefunction that appears in the Schrödinger equation and gives the probability of finding it in any given state.

Y is for ... Young's Double Slit Experiment

In 1801, Thomas Young proved light was a wave, and overthrew Newton’s idea that light was a “corpuscle”.

K is for ... Kaon

These are particles that carry a quantum property called strangeness. Some fundamental particles have the property known as charm!

A is for ... Atom

This is the basic building block of matter that creates the world of chemical elements – although it is made up of more fundamental particles.

S is for ... Superposition

Quantum objects can exist in two or more states at once: an electron in superposition, for example, can simultaneously move clockwise and anticlockwise around a ring-shaped conductor.

H is for ... Hidden Variables

One school of thought says that the strangeness of quantum theory can be put down to a lack of information; if we could find the “hidden variables” the mysteries would all go away.

X is for ... X-ray

In 1923 Arthur Compton shone X-rays onto a block of graphite and found that they bounced off with their energy reduced exactly as would be expected if they were composed of particles colliding with electrons in the graphite. This was the first indication of radiation’s particle-like nature.

U is for ... Universe

To many researchers, the universe behaves like a gigantic quantum computer that is busy processing all the information it contains.

B is for ... Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC)

At extremely low temperatures, quantum rules mean that atoms can come together and behave as if they are one giant super-atom.

A is for ... Act of observation

Some people believe this changes everything in the quantum world, even bringing things into existence.

G is for ... Gluon

These elementary particles hold together the quarks that lie at the heart of matter.

G is for ... Gravity

Our best theory of gravity no longer belongs to Isaac Newton. It’s Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity. There’s just one problem: it is incompatible with quantum theory. The effort to tie the two together provides the greatest challenge to physics in the 21st century.

S is for ... Schrödinger’s Cat

A hypothetical experiment in which a cat kept in a closed box can be alive and dead at the same time – as long as nobody lifts the lid to take a look.

A is for ... Alice and Bob

In quantum experiments, these are the names traditionally given to the people transmitting and receiving information. In quantum cryptography, an eavesdropper called Eve tries to intercept the information.

I is for ... Information

Many researchers working in quantum theory believe that information is the most fundamental building block of reality.

T is for ... Tunnelling

This happens when quantum objects “borrow” energy in order to bypass an obstacle such as a gap in an electrical circuit. It is possible thanks to the uncertainty principle, and enables quantum particles to do things other particles can’t.

Q is for ... Qubit

One quantum bit of information is known as a qubit (pronounced Q-bit). The ability of quantum particles to exist in many different states at once means a single quantum object can represent multiple qubits at once, opening up the possibility of extremely fast information processing.

D is for ... Decoherence

Unless it is carefully isolated, a quantum system will “leak” information into its surroundings. This can destroy delicate states such as superposition and entanglement.

W is for ... Wave-particle duality

It is possible to describe an atom, an electron, or a photon as either a wave or a particle. In reality, they are both: a wave and a particle.

L is for ... Large Hadron Collider (LHC)

At CERN in Geneva, Switzerland, this machine is smashing apart particles in order to discover their constituent parts and the quantum laws that govern their behaviour.